<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <!-- saved from url=(0121)http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=cache:715yINGtLR0J:www.tesla.hu/tesla/articles/19170518.doc+Tesla+Pupin+friendship&hl=en --><HTML><HEAD><TITLE>EXPERIMENTS WITH ALTERNATE CURRENTS OF VERY HIGH FREQUENCY AND THEIR APPLICATION TO METHODS OF</TITLE> <META http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> <META content="MSHTML 5.50.4134.600" name=GENERATOR></HEAD> <BODY> <TABLE width="100%" border=1> <TBODY> <TR> <TD> <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=10 width="100%" bgColor=#ffffff border=1 color="#ffffff"> <TBODY> <TR> <TD><FONT face=arial,sans-serif color=black size=-1>This is the html version of the file <A href="http://www.tesla.hu/tesla/articles/19170518.doc"><FONT color=blue>http://www.tesla.hu/tesla/articles/19170518.doc</FONT></A>.<BR><B><FONT color=#0039b6>G</FONT> <FONT color=#c41200>o</FONT> <FONT color=#f3c518>o</FONT> <FONT color=#0039b6>g</FONT> <FONT color=#30a72f>l</FONT> <FONT color=#c41200>e</FONT></B> automatically generates html versions of documents as we crawl the web.<BR>To link to or bookmark this page, use the following url: <CODE>http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:715yINGtLR0J:www.tesla.hu/tesla/articles/19170518.doc+Tesla+Pupin+friendship&amp;hl=en</CODE></FONT><BR><BR> <CENTER><FONT size=-2><I>Google is not affiliated with the authors of this page nor responsible for its content.</I></FONT></CENTER></TD></TR> <TR> <TD> <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD><FONT face=arial,sans-serif color=black size=-1>These search terms have been highlighted:&nbsp;</FONT></TD> <TD bgColor=#ffff66><B><FONT face=arial,sans-serif color=black size=-1>tesla&nbsp;</FONT></B></TD> <TD bgColor=#a0ffff><B><FONT face=arial,sans-serif color=black size=-1>pupin&nbsp;</FONT></B></TD> <TD bgColor=#99ff99><B><FONT face=arial,sans-serif color=black size=-1>friendship&nbsp;</FONT></B></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> <HR> </META>&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;<BR> <P align=center>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, MELD AT THE ENGINEERING SOCIETIES BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY, FRIDAY EVENING, MAY 18, 1917.</FONT><FONT face="Times New Roman CE" size=2>* </FONT>&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;<BR></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>PRESENTATION OF THE EDISON MEDAL TO NIKOLA <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">TESLA</B>. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>President Buck called the meeting to order at 8:30 o'clock. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>THE PRESIDENT: As you know, gentlemen, this is the Annual Meeting of the Institute, and the first thing on the program will be the presentation of the Report of the Board of Directors by our Secretary, Mr. Hutchinson.</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>SECRETARY HUTCHINSON: The annual report of the Institute for the year has been printed and distributed, and it is not my intention to take the time to read it. It consists of a brief resume of the activities of the institute for the entire year, and includes abstracts of the reports of the various committees.</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>(Secretary Hutchinson then abstracted the Report of the Board of Directors.) </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>THE PRESIDENT: Gentlemen, the next order of business of the evening will be the announcement of the election of officers and managers for the coming year. The report of the Tellers will be presented by the Secretary, Mr. Hutchinson.</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Secretary Hutchinson then presented the report of the Tellers, which showed elections as follows: </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>President: &nbsp;W. W. Rice, Jr. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Vice-Presidents: &nbsp;Frederich Bedell,&nbsp;&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;John H. Finney,&nbsp;&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;A. S. McAllister</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Managers: (Term expiring July 31, 1921)&nbsp;Walter A. Hall,&nbsp;&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;E. H. Martindale,&nbsp;&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;William A. DelMar,&nbsp;&nbsp;<BR>&nbsp;Wilfred Sykes</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Treasurer: &nbsp;George A. Hamilton</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>(The president then declared the foregoing-named gentlemen as duly elected officers and managers of the Institute as indicated.) </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>THE PRESIDENT: It is our privilege from time to time to honor those in the electrical profession who have rendered conspicuous service towards this advance. We have the pleasure this evening of so honoring Mr. Nikola <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B>. Dr. Kennelly, who is Chairman of the Edison Medal Committee, will tell us what the Edison Medal is and what it stands for. I take pleasure in introducing Dr. A. E. Kennelly.</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>DR. A. E. KENNELLY: Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is my privilege to say a few words to you upon the origin and purpose of the Edison Medal. First of all, many people suppose that the Edison Medal is a medal presented by Mr. Edison. That is a mistake. Mr. Edison has been so busy during his life receiving medals that he has not time for the delivery of any. The Edison Medal owes its existence to the action of a group of his admirers who in a very remarkable Deed of Gift, a printed copy of which I have here, have set apart a fund for the purpose of the annual award of a medal for meritorious achievement in the electrical science and art. This deed of gift originally recited, in 1904, that the medal should be annually awarded for 'the best graduating thesis by the students of electrical engineering in the United States and Canada, but in the years that elapsed between 1904 and 1908, I think I am correct in saying that there were no successful candidates, at least for the medal under those terms, although there may have been many aspirants. It is supposed that the dignity of the medal and the junior character of the tyros restrained them in their modesty from making proper application.</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Be that as it may, finding that the applicants held back under the original terms of the deed of gift, the matter was taken up further and the original body of men redrafted the deed and placed it in the hands of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers to award the medal, under the choice of a Committee, annually, for meritorious achievement, as indicated, to any resident of the United States, its dependencies, or Canada, during each administration year. The monument which they raised to Mr. Edison by their act is, I think you will admit, one of the most wonderful that has ever been raised to any scientist. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>The Deed of Gift says that there shall be twenty-four members appointed by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, sixteen from the membership at large, three ex officio members, the President, Secretary and Treasurer, and the balance from the Board of Directors. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Every year the medal is due to be awarded. There have been already six medals awarded, not counting the medal which is to be awarded to-night, and the recipients of these medals have been Elihu Thomson, Frank J. Sprague, George Westinghouse, William Stanley, Charles F. Brush, Alexander Graham Bell. I think you will say that is a fitting selection for the galaxy of names that we look forward to in the future, all of them, in honoring Mr. Edison's achievements, which have been so noteworthy, that every household in the land holds his name as a cherished household word. We may look forward to a time say a thousand years hence, when, like this evening, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, or its successors or assigns, shall be convoked, and at which the medal of the year will be awarded to its One Thousand and Seventh recipient, and all that long galaxy of names will represent those individuals who have contributed to the recognition of the achievements of Mr. Edison and his gift to humanity. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>In addition to what this deed of gift shows in honor of Mr. Edison himself, there is, of course, the very great honor that it bestows upon the recipient. The Deed of Gift says there shall be twenty-four jurors, which you see is twice the number of jurors that is allowed in the palladium of our liberties, but whereas the jurors of ordinary life convict by unanimous vote, the twenty-four jurors of the Edison Medal convict, at least, by a two-thirds vote, so I think I am correct in saying that their convictions have hitherto been entirely unanimous, and in this particular case I can certainly declare that it has been unanimous. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>The galaxy of names that will be produced and has already been produced under this deed of gift will be great and noteworthy. It will not be necessary to look into a "Who's Who" to see who has been great and notorious and worthy of merit in electrical science and art. The historian of the future will simply say - "Give me the list of the Edison Medallists." </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>This deed of gift is also wonderful in other respects. It has marvelous flexibility and marvelous rigidity in certain directions. It provides for the possibility of a change of personnel, a change of procedure and a change of administration as time and things may change. It only makes one rigid restriction, and that is that the name "Edison Medal" shall never be changed. Times may change and persons and institutions, the Institute itself may go out of existence, and there is provided machinery whereby if the Institute should say it is tired, or it has gone out of existence, or can no longer administer the medal, that the five oldest universities of the country, maintaining a course in electrical engineering, shall be able to place the administration of the medal by their vote in the hands of some new institution, so you see that this is a very wonderful Deed of Gift that I have the honor of bringing to your notice here this evening in connection with the bestowal of this medal. Another great advantage that the medal presents is that its recipient shall be alive, that is to say he must not only have been convicted of great merit and meritorious achievement, but he must also have escaped being run over by automobiles up to the time of the presentation. That represents a great advance over those methods of awarding distinction which depend upon the demise of the individual. You know somebody has said that a great statesman is a successful politician who is dead, but we may say that the Edison Medallist is a great electrician who is alive, and you know it is wonderful how little is known sometimes about a man's demise, however much may be known about his work. The other day I met a negro in the South, and I happened to mention Washington, and what was done by George Washington who died so many years ago, and he said, "For de Lawd's sake, I doant even heard the man was sick." So you see that even George Washington, no matter how meritorious he might have been in electrical matters, could not possibly be the recipient of an Edison medal. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>We have recently received the sad news in this country of the demise of the great English electrical engineer Silvanus P. Thomson, a man who had many admirers and many friends in this country, many students here, a man whose name and work is dear to so many of us, and efforts are now being made to contribute to a fitting memorial for him by the purchase of his library as an appendix to the great library of the British Institution of Electrical Engineers, and a notice is given on page 126 of the May Proceedings of the Institute regarding that movement, and you will find it a very worthy movement. Subscription lists are open to the members of this Institute, as a matter of courtesy, and a matter of recognition, that so many of his friends in this country could be allowed to give some contribution to this great Thomson Memorial. It is a fact, as I dare say many of you know, that the funds for Lord Kelvin's Memorial Window in Westminster Abbey were largely raised in America, more largely, I believe, than they were in England itself. In this case I am led to believe that they do not want the funds so much, as they want the names of sympathizers with the project, the support of those who recognize the work and merit of Silvanus P. Thomson. But how much better it would be if we were presenting a memorial to Silvanus P. Thomson living, as we are able to do in the case of the Edison Medal, than presenting a memorial to Silvanus P. Thomson passed away. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Then one thing more: This deed of gift between its lines suggests a third and by no means least important purpose, and that is a safeguard, lest we forget. We in this time and of this continent, particularly we of the electrical profession, with our faces ever turned to the rising sun, are so apt to forget that there has been a preceding night of trouble, difficulty and dismay, and that the tools of our trade which lie to our hand were only secured by hard work and toil against all sorts of distress and discouragements. The Edison Medal is our means for reviving your memories of the past and pointing out that the things we look upon as the sunshine of heaven now have been arrived at by the hard work, the inspiration, or, as Edison himself would say, the perspiration of those who have worked in the past. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>We remember that beautiful book, "The Twins", where Budge and Toddy the children always insisted at all times of the day and night to see the wheels go 'round and have their father's watch opened for them. The medallist to-night was a man who saw in his mind wheels going around when there was no means of getting alternating current motors to rotate, when the alternating current would do everything but make wheels go 'round, and he devised the rotating magnetic field so prophetically in his mind's eye that the rotating magnetic wheel would set wheels going 'round all over the land and all over the world, and the vision is carried out, and we recognize that vision here, and the Medal is partly as a reminder that we should not forget the fact, that the medallist also made the phenomenon of high frequency known to us all practically for the first time, and that what he showed was a revelation to science and art unto all time. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>For this third purpose the Edison Medal has been created, and we may look far forward into the future and see it given year after year for, let us hope, a thousand years from now, in the year 2917, to witness the ceremony which we may well expect will be furnished at that time. (Applause)</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Kennelly has referred to the struggles of the past, and we are very fortunate in having with us to-night one who was associated with Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> in .his struggles of the past. Gentlemen, I want to introduce to you Mr. Charles A. Terry, who will tell us something about these struggles and the early work of Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B>, for which we assign to him the Medal to-night.</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>CHARLES A. TERRY: Mr. Kennelly spoke of the thousandth award of the Medal. I think there is a peculiar significance in the fact that Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> is to receive the seventh medal - the seventh in most calculations is considered a most excellent number to have. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>The convolutions of the brain of one man impel him to paint upon canvas the visions of his soul; another conceives beauty of form which he must express in plastic art or in architectural structure; others are driven by an inner force to devote their lives to the discovery of the secrets of unexplored regions of the earth, or to search out the mysteries of the stars; some find themselves compelled by an irresistable desire to learn through archeological research the forgotten achievements of ancient races; still others seek to ascertain and formulate the physical laws which govern the processes of nature, and men with other talents find themselves urged by a like persistent force to devise and disclose new means whereby those laws may be utilized for the further benefit of mankind. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>It is this God-given desire to accomplish and to give, that has produced the Michelangelos, the Galileos, the Sir Christopher Wrens, the Livingstons, Newtons, Franklins, Westinghouses, Edisons and scores of other makers of history; men whose names we retain in affectionate remembrance, because they earnestly responded to the call from within and by patient toil conceived thoughts and discovered things of value which they promulgated for the benefit of their fellow men. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Although hope of reward may and properly should exist as an added impulse to such endeavors, the chiefly effective force compelling to the long hours of hard work and personal sacrifices of such men is the "I must" which speaks from within the soul, and with our truly great men the desire for reward is better satisfied by a consciousness of achieving their aims and by the just commendation of their fellows than by material gain, except insofar as the latter may aid in the further advancement of their tasks. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Fortunately, men generally are not jealous nor envious of the doers of great deeds and the givers of large benefits, but from the depths of their hearts are grateful and they are satisfied only when evidence of their gratitude can be brought home to the giver. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>It is because of this desire to show gratitude to, and appreciation of, one of our fellow members, whose name history will rightly record in the same distinguished class with those we have mentioned that we are gathered to-night. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Twenty-nine years ago this month, there was presented before this Institute, a paper of unusual import. It is entitled "A New System of Alternate Current Motors and Transformers". The author, Nikola <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B>, was then only 31 years of age, and but four years a resident of this country. His early life was spent near his birthplace not far from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. His father a Greek Clergyman and his mother, herself of an inventive mind, secured for their young son a comprehensive training in mathematics, physics and philosophy. At the age of 22 he had completed his studies in engineering at the Polytechnic School in Gratz and also a course in the University of Prague; and in 1881 began his practical work at Budapest. In 1883 he was located in Strasbourg, engaged in completing the lighting of a newly erected railway station. Shortly after finishing this task he came to the United States. Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> first work in this country was upon new designs of direct current arc and incandescent lighting systems for the Edison Company. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Throughout all these years his desire had been to find an opportunity to demonstrate the truth of a conviction which-became fixed in his mind while studying direct current motors in school at Gratz in 1878; the conviction was that it should be possible to create a rotating magnetic field without the use of commutators. While at Strasbourg, <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> had succeeded in producing the rotation of a pivoted iron disc placed in a coil traversed by alternating currents, a steel bar being projected into the coil in the neighborhood of the disc. His conception of the reason for this rotation at that time was that a lag occurred in the subsidence of the magnetism of both the disc and the steel bar between successive current waves, and that the mutual repulsions caused the disc to revolve. By some fortunate process of reasoning he conceived while in Budapest (in 1882) that by using two or more out-of-phase alternating currents respectively passing through geometrically displaced coils it would be possible to develop his long sought progressively shifting magnetic field. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Lack of funds and facilities for working out his theory compelled still further postponement, but in 1885 <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> had the good fortune to interest men of means in a direct current arc light which he had devised, and subsequently a laboratory was equipped for him in Liberty Street, New York, and here at last he found opportunity to demonstrate the correctness of his long cherished theory. In 1887 he was able to exhibit to his business associates and to Professor William A. Anthony, whose expert opinion they sought, motors having such progressively shifting fields without the use of commutators, as he had foreseen nine years before. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Having thus demonstrated the correctness of his theory and the feasibility of its application, it remained for <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> to work out various practical methods of applying the principle, and the rapidity and wonderful way in which he surrounded the entire field of constant speed, synchronous, induction and split-phase motors is beautifully set forth in his paper of May 18th, and in the numerous patents issued May 1st, 1888, and succeeding years, covering the forms of electric motors which have since become the almost universal means for transforming the energy of alternating currents into mechanical energy. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>It is somewhat difficult to eliminate from our minds the developments of the past thirty years which have now become every day features of the electrical industry, and to realize the meagreness of the then existing knowledge of alternating current phenomena. The commercial use of alternating current systems of distributions was then scarcely two years old. The Gaulard &amp; Gibbs system of series transformers had been used abroad in a limited way for a slightly longer period but the multiple arc system based upon the so-called "Stanley Rule" which initiated the great development of the present system, was not put in practical operation in the pioneer Great Barrington plant until March 1886. It was then recognized that while the alternating current possessed wonderful possibilities for electrical distribution for lighting purposes, two almost necessary devices were lacking to render it a complete success, one a meter, the other a power motor. Professor Elihu Thomson promptly devised a successful form of meter, the motive portion of which comprised a laminated field and armature, the coils of the latter being periodically close-circuited during revolution by a commutator. To fill the demand for a power motor, however, the most promising device then suggested was a series commutator motor with laminated field and armature cores, but no satisfactory results had been obtained. Such was the situation when <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> achievement was announced in the Institute paper to which reference has been made. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>His Honor Judge Townsend of the United States Circuit Court, in an opinion rendered in August, 1900, as the outgrowth of some patent litigation on the <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> inventions, concisely defines the underlying characteristic of the <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> motor as follows:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"<B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> invention, considered in it essence, was the production of a continuously rotating or whirling field of magnetic forces for power purposes by generating two or more displaced or differing phases of the alternating current, transmitting such phases, with their independence preserved, to the motor, and utilizing the displaced phases as such in the motor."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Among the first to recognize the immense importance of Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> motors were Mr. Westinghouse and his advisors, Mr. T. B. Kerr, Mr. Byllesby, Mr. Shallenberger and Mr. Schmid, and in June Mr. Westinghouse secured an option which shortly resulted in the purchase of the patents, thus bringing under one ownership the alternating current transformer system of distribution, and the <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> motor. It is interesting to here note that Mr. Shallenberger had about two weeks before the publication of the <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> patents independently devised an alternating current meter, the principle of operation of which was that of the <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> motor, and whatever might have been Mr. Shallenberger's natural disappointment upon finding himself thus anticipated, he at once recognized that to Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> belonged the honor of being the first to solve the great fundamental problem of an alternating current motor. A warm <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #99ff99">friendship</B> between these two men began at once and continued throughout Mr. Shallenberger's life, and Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> rejoiced to accord to Mr. Shallenberger full credit for the latter's brilliant work in producing what is now the standard meter for alternating currents. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>As illustrating the generous gentleness of <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> character, I wish to here quote from testimony given by him in 1903. Referring to Shallenberger, <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> said:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"I clearly remember that in the first days when I came to Pittsburgh he took me to lunch at the Duquesne Notel, and when I told him that I was sorry that I had anticipated him, I saw tears in his eyes. That incident I remember vividly; but what has preceded it I cannot remember now. Perhaps it is because this impression was so vivid that it has destroyed the preceding ones, which were weaker."'</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>It is characteristic of <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> that he should so deeply regret the disappointments of another. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Owing in a measure to the circumstance that the then prevailing rate of alternation of the alternating current system was 16,000, the commercial introduction of <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> motors was somewhat retarded during the first few years, that rate being found less adapted to the motor work than a lower rate. Today, however, wherever alternating current systems are used <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> motors abound. Without such motors the alternating current system would have remained seriously restricted in its use. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Before passing to a consideration of other of <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> activities, it will be appropriate to refer again to the opinion of Judge Townsend, from which I quote the following:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"The <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> discovery for which these patents were granted revolutionized the art of electrical power transmission, as well demonstrated in the record from both judicial and scientific standpoints."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>In the closing passage of the opinion, Judge Townsend pays further tribute to <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> in the following words:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"It remained to the genius of <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> to capture the unruly, unrestrained, and hitherto opposing elements in the field of nature and art and to harness them to draw the machines of man. It was he who first showed how to transform the toy of Arago into an engine of power, the "Laboratory experiment" of Baily into a practically successful motor; the indicator into a driver. He first conceived the idea that the very impediments of reversal in direction, the contradictions of alternations, might be transformed into power-producing rotation, a whirling field of force.</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>What others looked upon as only invincible barriers, impassable currents, and contradictory forces, he brought under control and by harmonizing their directions taught how to utilize in practical motors in distant cities the power of Niagara."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Imagination developed to a high degree is a marked characteristic of all great inventors, so it is of our great poets, artists, philosophers, generals, and, in fact, of all great originators of thought and motion: The power to picture in the mind things not yet existent is an underlying characteristic of most great men. But imagination to be effective must be combined with a just sense of proportion, a logical appreciation of limitations, and a capacity for unremitting application. Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> combines these qualities in a marked degree, and particularly does he possess the faculty of projecting his thought far into unexplored regions, not only of science but of philosophy. His passion for searching out the ultimate is charmingly evidenced by the following extract from his lecture before this Institute at Columbia College, May 20th, 1891;</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"In how far we can understand the world .around us is the ultimate thought of every student of nature. The coarseness of our senses prevents us from recognizing the ulterior construction of matter, and astronomy, this grandest and most positive of natural sciences, can only teach us something that happens, as it were, in our immediate neighborhood; of the remoter portions of the boundless universe, with its numberless stars and suns, we know nothing. But far beyond the limit of perception of our senses the spirit still can guide us, and so we may hope that even these unknown worlds  infinitely small and great  may in a measure become known to us. Still, even if this knowledge should reach us, the searching mind will find a barrier, perhaps forever unsurpassable, to the true recognition of that which seems to be, the mere appearance of which is the only and slender basis of all our philosophy.</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Of all the forms of nature's immeasurable, all-pervading energy, which, ever and ever changing and moving, like a soul animates the inert universe, those of electricity and magnetism are perhaps the most fascinating."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>The impress made upon the world by the deeds of a great inventor cannot be measured by the number of patents which he has received nor by the monetary reward secured nor by the mere exploitation of his name. Often his greatest gifts are in the form of inspiring contributions to the literature, filled with suggestions of lines of thought which lead others to work in untried fields. This is especially true of a series of lectures delivered by Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> upon the subject of high frequency, high potential currents. The first of the series was given at Columbia College in 1891, before this Institute. During 1892 and 1893 this lecture with additional data and experiments was repeated in London, Paris, Philadelphia and St. Louis. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Referring to an interesting interview with Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> appearing in a New York daily in 1893 regarding the St. Louis lecture the Editor of the Electrical World says:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B>, in his own graceful way, tells the story of his life and the history of some of his more important inventions. Perhaps there is no living scientist in whose life and work the general public takes a deeper interest, especially in this country."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2><B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> fundamental purpose was to publish the results of an extended research and of a series of experiments patiently conducted at his laboratory and elsewhere through many years. During these lectures he exhibited to the audience numerous experiments displaying striking and instructive phenomena. He also described many novel pieces of apparatus such, for instance, as his high-frequency generator and induction coils and his magnetically quenched arc. Mr. Erskine Murray in his treatise upon Wireless Telegraphy, referring to certain of these early inventions of <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> says:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"Among many other inventions, made as early as 1893, perhaps the most important to wireless telegraphists is his method of producing long trains of waves of high frequency, and of transforming them to higher voltage. After several unsuccessful attempts he completed an alternator which could be run at 30,000 periods per second, and designed a form of transformer capable of transforming these currents to very high voltage. He also showed that his transformer, or "<B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> coil" as it is usually called nowadays, could transform currents of much higher frequencies than were obtainable from his alternator, even currents of 100,000 or 1,000,000 periods per second, such as are produced by the oscillatory discharge of a Leyden jar."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>The London lecture was given under the auspices of the British Institution of Electrical Engineers and because of the intense public interest manifested after its announcement the ample capacity of the Theatre of the Royal Institution was required to accommodate the audience. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>At the completion of the lecture Prof. Aytron spoke as follows:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"It is my most pleasing duty to propose a very hearty vote of thanks to our lecturer, who has entertained us, it is true, for two hours, but we would willingly wait for another hour's similar entertainment."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Mr. Fleming in his authoritative book on wireless telegraphy and telephony pays the following tribute:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"In 1892 Nikola <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> captured the attention of the whole scientific world by his fascinating experiments on high frequency electric currents. He stimulated the scientific imagination of others us well as displayed his own, and created a widespread interest in his brilliant demonstrations.</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Amongst those who witnessed these things no one was more able to appreciate their inner meaning than Sir William Crookes."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>An article by E. Raverot appearing in the Electrical World of March 26, 1892, closes a review of the <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> Paris lecture with the following appreciative comment:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"One sees from this lecture the deep interest which the works and discoveries of Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> have inspired among physicists since the first appearance of his publication, and it is with great satisfaction that we are able to express the feeling of admiration which his experiments have inspired in us."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>In his London lecture delivered in February, 1892, <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> had occasion to describe a special construction of insulated cable designed to guard against electro-static disturbances, but immediately added the following significant prediction:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"But such cables will not be constructed, for ere long intelligence  transmitted without wires  will throb through the earth like a pulse through a living organism. The wonder is that, with the present state of knowledge and experiences gained, no attempt is being made to disturb the electrostatic or magnetic condition of the earth and transmit, if nothing else, intelligence."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>This was <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla's</B> prophecy twenty-five years ago. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>In his lecture before the National Electric Light Association at St. Louis in March, 1893, Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> elaborated certain views regarding the importance of resonance effects in this field and stated:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"I would say a few words on a subject which constantly fills my thoughts and which concerns the welfare of all. I mean the transmission of intelligible signals or perhaps even power to any distance without the use of wires."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>He then announced that his conviction had grown so strong that he no longer looked upon the plan of transmitting intelligence as a mere theoretical possibility, and referring to the existing belief of some that telephony to any distance might be accomplished "by induction through the air", concisely set forth his theory as follows:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"I cannot stretch my imagination so far, but I do firmly believe that it is practical to disturb by means of powerful machines the electro-static condition of the earth and thus transmit intelligible signals and perhaps power."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Enlarging upon this theory, he states that, although we have no possible evidence of a charged body existing in space without other oppositely electrified bodies being near, there is a fair probability that the earth is such a body, for by whatever process it was separated from other bodies it must have retained a charge and that the upper strata of the air may be conducting and contain this opposite charge. He further expanded the theory that with proper means for producing electrical oscillations it might be possible to produce electrical disturbances sufficiently powerful to be perceptible by suitable instruments at any point on the Earth's surface. He thus forecast the theory at present accepted by leading scientists as the true basis of wireless telegraphy. </FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Continuing the same line of thought Mr. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> in an interview which appeared in the New York Herald in 1893 said:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"One result of my investigations, the possibility of which has been proven by experiment, is the transmission of energy through the air. I advanced that idea some time ago, and I am happy to say it is now receiving some attention from scientific men.</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>The plan I have suggested is to disturb by powerful machinery the electricity of the earth, thus setting it in vibration. Proper appliances will be constructed to take up the energy transmitted by these vibrations, transforming them into suitable form of power to be made available for the practical wants of life."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Testifying in a patent suit regarding these early predictions Mr. John Stone Stone, the well-known authority on wireless telegraphy has but recently made the following striking comment:</FONT></P> <P align=justify><FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>"I misunderstood <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B>. I think we all misunderstood <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B>. We thought he was a dreamer and visionary. He did dream and his dreams came true, he did have visions but they were of a real future, not an imaginary one. <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> was the first man to lift his eyes high enough to see that the rarified stratum of atmosphere above our earth was destined to play an important role in the radio telegraphy of the future, a fact which had to obtrude itself on the attention of most of us before we saw it. But <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> also perceived what many of us did not in those days, namely, the currents which flowed away from the base of the antenna over the surface of the earth and in the earth itself."</FONT></P> <P align=justify>&nbsp;&nbsp;<FONT face="Times New Roman" size=2>Seldom is it that an art springs into being through the efforts of one man alone, but rather as a growth to which many have contributed. This is peculiarly true of the wireless art, and without detracting in the slightest from the honor which is justly due to those who have brought the system to its present wonderful efficiency, it is just to accord to <B style="COLOR: black; BACKGROUND-COLOR: #ffff66">Tesla</B> highest praise not alone for his exposition of principles as set forth in his lectures but also for the more definitive work which followed, much of which is evidenced by his many patents dealing with the wireless art. </FON